The late Marvin Miller who revolutionized baseball as head of its players union and Ted Simmons, one of the best-hitting catchers, were elected the Hall of Fame Sunday.

Steve Garvey, who played the final five seasons of his 19-season major league career with the San Diego Padres, was among eight former players who failed to receive the 12 votes needed for election by a 16-member committee who met in San Diego Sunday.

Simmons received 13 votes and Miller 12. Garvey received six votes.

Dwight Evans, an outfielder with the Boston Red Sox from 1972-90 who completed his career in 1991 with the Baltimore Orioles, received the most votes among candidates failing to be elected Sunday, eight.

Miller headed the Major League Baseball Players Association from 1966-82, turning the union into a powerhouse. He secured free agency for the players via the arbitration process when Dave McNally and Andy Messersmith played out their contracts following the 1975 season.

By the time Miller retired, the average player salary was approximately 10 times what it was when he took over.

Miller died in 2012 at the age of 95.

Simmons played for the St. Louis Cardinals, Milwaukee Brewers and Atlanta Braves during a 21-year career from 1968-88. He is second in hits, RBI and doubles and fifth in runs scored among those who played at least 50% of their games at catcher.

The committee appointed by the Hall of Fame to evaluate the Modern Baseball Era candidates consisted of Hall of Famers George Brett, Rod Carew, Dennis Eckersley, Eddie Murray, Ozzie Smith and Robin Yount; six major league executives and four media members or historians.

The meeting was held in San Diego in connection with baseball’s winter meetings which will run through Thursday.

Figures from the Modern Baseball Era, individuals whose greatest contributions to baseball came from 1970 to 1987, are considered twice in a five-year period for election to the Hall of Fame. They will next be considered in 2022.

Individuals whose greatest contributions to baseball came from 1950 to 1969, what the Hall of Fame defines as the Golden Days Era, and before 1950, the Early Baseball Era, will be considered for the Hall of Fame next year.

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